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    In May , he returned to Rome, where he was received with outward cordiality by Pope Alexander VI , and where he lived for several years immersed in art and literature.

    In he welcomed the accession of Pope Julius II to the pontificate; the death of Piero de' Medici in the same year made Giovanni head of his family.

    On 1 October he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna , and when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans, Julius II sent Giovanni as legate with the papal army venturing against the French.

    The French won a major battle and captured Giovanni. Giovanni's younger brother Giuliano was placed at the head of the republic, [4] but Giovanni managed the government.

    Giovanni was elected Pope on 9 March , and this was proclaimed two days later. On 15 March , he was ordained priest, and consecrated as bishop on 17 March.

    He was crowned Pope on 19 March at the age of He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. Leo had intended his younger brother Giuliano and his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers.

    He had named them Roman patricians ; the latter he had placed in charge of Florence; the former, for whom he planned to carve out a kingdom in central Italy of Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara and Urbino, he had taken with himself to Rome and married to Filiberta of Savoy.

    The death of Giuliano in March , however, caused the pope to transfer his ambitions to Lorenzo. At the very time December that peace between France, Spain, Venice and the Empire seemed to give some promise of a Christendom united against the Turks, Leo obtained , ducats towards the expenses of the expedition from Henry VIII of England , in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France.

    The war lasted from February to September and ended with the expulsion of the duke and the triumph of Lorenzo; but it revived the policy of Alexander VI, increased brigandage and anarchy in the Papal States , hindered the preparations for a crusade and wrecked the papal finances.

    Francesco Guicciardini reckoned the cost of the war to Leo at the sum of , ducats. Ultimately, however, Lorenzo was confirmed as the new duke of Urbino.

    The war of Urbino was further marked by a crisis in the relations between pope and cardinals. The sacred college had allegedly grown especially worldly and troublesome since the time of Sixtus IV , and Leo took advantage of a plot of several of its members to poison him, not only to inflict exemplary punishments by executing one Alfonso Petrucci and imprisoning several others, but also to make a radical change in the college.

    On 3 July he published the names of thirty-one new cardinals, a number almost unprecedented in the history of the papacy. The naming of seven members of prominent Roman families, however, reversed the policy of his predecessor which had kept the political factions of the city out of the Curia.

    Other promotions were for political or family considerations or to secure money for the war against Urbino. The pope was accused of having exaggerated the conspiracy of the cardinals for purposes of financial gain, but most of such accusations appear unsubstantiated.

    Leo, meanwhile, felt the need of staying the advance of the Ottoman sultan , Selim I , who was threatening western Europe , and made elaborate plans for a crusade.

    A truce was to be proclaimed throughout Christendom; the pope was to be the arbiter of disputes; the emperor and the king of France were to lead the army; England, Spain and Portugal were to furnish the fleet; and the combined forces were to be directed against Constantinople.

    Papal diplomacy in the interests of peace failed, however; Cardinal Wolsey made England, not the pope, the arbiter between France and the Empire; and much of the money collected for the crusade from tithes and indulgences was spent in other ways.

    In the Kingdom of Hungary concluded a three years' truce with Selim I, but the succeeding sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent , renewed the war in June and on 28 August captured the citadel of Belgrade.

    The pope was greatly alarmed, and although he was then involved in war with France he sent about 30, ducats to the Hungarians.

    Leo treated the Eastern Catholic Greeks with great loyalty, and by bull of 18 May forbade Latin clergy to celebrate mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy.

    Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by schism, especially the Reformation sparked by Martin Luther. In response to concerns about misconduct from some indulgence preachers, in Martin Luther wrote his Ninety-five Theses on the topic of indulgences.

    The resulting pamphlet spread Luther's ideas throughout Germany and Europe. Leo failed to fully comprehend the importance of the movement, and in February he directed the vicar-general of the Augustinians to impose silence on his monks.

    On 24 May, Luther sent an explanation of his theses to the pope; on 7 August he was summoned to appear at Rome.

    An arrangement was effected, however, whereby that summons was cancelled, and Luther went instead to Augsburg in October to meet the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan ; but neither the arguments of the cardinal, nor Leo's dogmatic papal bull of 9 November requiring all Christians to believe in the pope's power to grant indulgences, moved Luther to retract.

    A year of fruitless negotiations followed, during which the controversy took popular root across the German states.

    A further papal bull of 15 June , Exsurge Domine or Arise, O Lord , condemned forty-one propositions extracted from Luther's teachings, and was taken to Germany by Eck in his capacity as apostolic nuncio.

    It was also under Leo that Lutheranism spread into Scandinavia. The pope had repeatedly used the rich northern benefices to reward members of the Roman curia, and towards the close of the year he sent the impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter's.

    This led to the Reformation in Denmark-Norway and Holstein. King Christian II took advantage of the growing dissatisfaction of the native clergy toward the papal government, and of Arcimboldi's interference in the Swedish revolt, to expel the nuncio and summon Lutheran theologians to Copenhagen in Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes.

    Leo sent a new nuncio to Copenhagen in the person of the Minorite Francesco de Potentia, who readily absolved the king and received the rich bishopric of Skara.

    The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to remove abuses or otherwise reform the Scandinavian churches. That Leo did not do more to check the anti-papal rebellion in Germany and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his own preoccupation with papal and Medicean politics in Italy.

    The death of the emperor Maximilian in had seriously affected the situation. Leo vacillated between the powerful candidates for the succession, allowing it to appear at first that he favoured Francis or a minor German prince.

    He finally accepted Charles of Spain as inevitable. An attempt late in to seize Ferrara failed, and the pope recognized the need for foreign aid.

    In May a treaty of alliance was signed at Rome between him and the emperor. Milan and Genoa were to be taken from France and restored to the Empire, and Parma and Piacenza were to be given to the Church on the expulsion of the French.

    The expense of enlisting 10, Swiss was to be borne equally by pope and emperor. Charles V took Florence and the Medici family under his protection and promised to punish all enemies of the Catholic faith.

    It was provided that England and the Swiss might also join the league. Francis I had already begun war with Charles V in Navarre , and in Italy, too, the French made the first hostile movement on 23 June Leo at once announced that he would excommunicate the king of France and release his subjects from their allegiance unless Francis I laid down his arms and surrendered Parma and Piacenza to the Church.

    The pope lived to hear the joyful news of the capture of Milan from the French and of the occupation by papal troops of the long-coveted provinces November Having fallen ill with bronchopneumonia , [7] Pope Leo X died on 1 December , so suddenly that the last sacraments could not be administered; but the contemporary suspicions of poison were unfounded.

    He was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Leo had a musical and pleasant voice and was cheerful in temper. He especially delighted in ex tempore Latin verse-making at which he excelled and cultivated improvisatori.

    The character of Leo X was formerly assailed by lurid aspersions of debauchery, murder, impiety, and atheism. In the 17th century it was estimated that or writers, more or less, reported on the authority of a single polemical anti-Catholic source a story that when someone had quoted to Leo a passage from one of the Four Evangelists , he had replied that it was common knowledge "how profitable that fable of Christe hath ben to us and our companie.

    Humane, beneficent, generous, affable; the patron of every art, and friend of every virtue". Indeed, the published opinion of so many great men and the repute of your blameless life are too widely famed and too much reverenced throughout the world to be assailed by any man, of however great name, or by any arts.

    I am not so foolish to attack one whom everybody praises The final report of the Venetian ambassador Marino Giorgi supports Hume's assessment of affability, and testifies to the range of Leo's talents.

    The pope is a good-natured and extremely free-hearted man, who avoids every difficult situation and above all wants peace; he would not undertake a war himself unless his own personal interests were involved; he loves learning; of canon law and literature he possesses remarkable knowledge; he is, moreover, a very excellent musician.

    Leo is the fifth of the six popes who are unfavorably profiled by historian Barbara Tuchman in The March of Folly , and who are accused by her of precipitating the Protestant Reformation.

    Tuchman describes Leo as a cultured — if religiously devout — hedonist. Leo X's love for all forms of art stemmed from the humanistic education he received in Florence , his studies in Pisa and his extensive travel throughout Europe when a youth.

    He loved the Latin poems of the humanists, the tragedies of the Greeks and the comedies of Cardinal Bibbiena and Ariosto , while relishing the accounts sent back by the explorers of the New World.

    Yet "Such a humanistic interest was itself religious. In the Renaissance , the vines of the classical world and the Christian world, of Rome, were seen as intertwined.

    It was a historically minded culture where artists' representations of Cupid and the Madonna , of Hercules and St. Peter could exist side-by-side".

    Pastor says that "From his youth Leo, who had a fine ear and a melodious voice, loved music to the pitch of fanaticism".

    Next to goldsmiths, the highest salaries recorded in the papal accounts are those paid to musicians, who also received largesse from Leo's private purse.

    Their services were retained not so much for the delectation of Leo and his guests at private social functions as for the enhancement of religious services on which the pope placed great store.

    The standard of singing of the papal choir was a particular object of Leo's concern, with French, Dutch, Spanish and Italian singers being retained.

    Large sums of money were also spent on the acquisition of highly ornamented musical instruments, and he was especially assiduous in securing musical scores from Florence.

    Ottaviano Petrucci , who had overcome practical difficulties in the way of using movable type to print musical notation, obtained from Leo X the exclusive privilege of printing organ scores which, according to the papal brief, "adds greatly to the dignity of divine worship" for a period for 15 years from 22 October Even those who defend him against the more outlandish attacks on his character condemn him for his love of masquerades, buffoonery and low jests, his irresponsible frivolous pursuits, and his inordinate passion for fowling and hunting boar and other wild beasts.

    Leo indulged buffoons at his Court, but also tolerated cruel antics which made them the object of ridicule. A notorious case concerned the conceited improvisatore Giacomo Baraballo, Abbot of Gaeta, who was the butt of a burlesque procession organised in the style of an ancient Roman triumph.

    Baraballo was dressed in festal robes of velvet and silk trimmed with ermine and presented to the pope. He was then taken to the piazza of St Peter's and was mounted on the back of Hanno, a white elephant , the gift of King Manuel I of Portugal.

    The magnificently ornamented animal was then led off in the direction of the Capitol to the sound of drums and trumpets.

    But while crossing the bridge of Sant'Angelo over the Tiber , the elephant, already distressed by the noise and confusion around him, shied violently, throwing his passenger onto the muddy riverbank below.

    Leo's most recent biographer, Carlo Falconi , claims Leo hid a private life of moral irregularity behind a mask of urbanity.

    Zimmerman notes Giovio's "disapproval of the pope's familiar banter with his chamberlains — handsome young men from noble families — and the advantage he was said to take of them.

    Martin Luther , who had spent time in Rome [30] said that Leo had vetoed a measure that cardinals should restrict the number of boys they kept for their pleasure, "otherwise it would have been spread throughout the world how openly and shamelessly the pope and the cardinals in Rome practice sodomy"; encouraging Germans not to spend time fighting fellow countrymen in defense of the papacy.

    Historians have dealt with the issue of Leo's chasteness at least since the late 18th century, and few have given credence to the imputations made against him in his later years and decades following his death, or else have at least regarded them as unworthy of notice; without necessarily reaching conclusions on whether he was homosexual.

    Leo X made charitable donations of more than 6, ducats annually to retirement homes, hospitals, convents, discharged soldiers, pilgrims, poor students, exiles, cripples and the sick and unfortunate.

    As a patron of learning, Leo X deserves a prominent place among the popes. He raised the Church to a high rank as the friend of whatever seemed to extend knowledge or to refine and embellish life.

    He made the capital of Christendom, Rome, a center of European culture. Leo's constitution of 5 November reformed the Roman university, which had been neglected by Julius II.

    He restored all its faculties, gave larger salaries to the professors, and summoned distinguished teachers from afar; and, although it never attained to the importance of Padua or Bologna, it nevertheless possessed in a faculty with a good reputation of eighty-eight professors.

    Leo called Janus Lascaris to Rome to give instruction in Greek, and established a Greek printing-press from which the first Greek book printed at Rome appeared in He made Raphael custodian of the classical antiquities of Rome and the vicinity.

    Other poets such as Marco Girolamo Vida , Gian Giorgio Trissino and Bibbiena, writers of novelle like Matteo Bandello , and a hundred other literati of the time were bishops, or papal scriptors or abbreviators , or in other papal employ.

    Under his pontificate, Latin Christianity assumed a pagan, Greco-Roman character, which, passing from art into manners, gives to this epoch a strange complexion.

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